How to Protect businesses from Package Theft

Package theft is a big concern for a lot of customers and businesses, since a lo of them get plundered, discarded, and taken by thieves, with many clients losing their items, and of course you have to replace the package in the event of theft.  Here’s how you can protect the customers that you have by making sure that the boxes are able to evade theft. 

Make it boring 

Packages have a lot of opportunities for branding, so you can mark this with imagery and text that don’t really tell them much about it. 

Tone it down a little bit so that there isn’t’ anything too expensive, and also try to make sure it doesn’t have brighter colors. Something more subtle works here, and it can be good.  Envelopes may be a better option since they can be thrown in a mailbox quite easily, making it quite nice for a lot of people who are looking to get their items without too much of a hassle. 

Safer Addresses 

If you know that there is a place where the package will be protected from this, you should have customers offer addresses for this. Work addresses, a PO box, and other locations where the packages are placed inside to be protected, or even a post or mail room is good. Lockers and pickup ways are also good to make sur that nothing is left exposed, and you can also have the carrier leave notes too for the person. You also may have to address it to a neighbor since of course, they may have them go and grab it instead. 

Offer Tracking 

Tracking is really important, since it lets the person know the status of where the package is. Customers can track where it went online, or even through their phones and whatnot, at any given period of time. A disposable GPS is also good, since if it does get stolen, you can of course track it down and find it once more. 

Get signatures 

Finally you might want to make sure that you do get signatures for this. This ensures that it won’t be delivered until it’s done. A lot of delivery options and companies offer this, and they may offer attempted delivery types with signatures, and they may do this three time before they return your package back. 

Give a means for customers to say when they have a package, or maybe have a neighbor sign for this, or the apartment office. Thieves won’t be able to steal packages that aren’t there, and you won’t have to deal with the problems of a fake signature, and you can do that by having someone you trust grab this. 

With that said, a lot of times package theft occurs when you d least expect it, especially when you’re trying to ensure that you’re getting the most that you can from this. Lots and lots of businesses can protect from package theft right away, and there are a lot of great ways for you to prevent this right away. 

For those who are curious about just what you can do in order to make sure that you get the packages safely delivered to where you need to have this done, then you’ll be able to, with this, get it delivered right away, and offer the best means possible. Remember, it will happen to anyone at any time, and it’s hard to prevent. But being mindful of this, and offering a safe, effective, and easy means to do so, will help you truly get the most that you can from this. 

Strapping Material or Stretch Film

When it comes to packaging and processing, you’ve got materials that will help secure items, both strapping material along with stretch film. Each of them has pros and cons, but not every single one of them is right for you. So what’s the best way to choose this? 

Well, continue to read on. Here, we’ll go over whether or not stretch film or strapping material is right for you, and for your packaging needs as well, no matter what they may be for you, and for others too. 

What does strapping Material Do? 

This is a packaging substrate that is actually wound around a kind of core, and they kind of look like fishing line, but they’re larger and usually a lot more thicker than mere fishing line. 

They usually offer steel, polypropylene, or polyester strapping options. The material is good for pallets, uniting, and also offering different kinds of shapes, weights, and sizes. You can also use this to bundle different products together, including magazines and even some clothing too. Strapping is good for products that are packaged, and usually, it can be done with a strapping tool or a strapping machine, sometimes known as a tensioner. 

Stretch Film 

This is stretchy film made of plastic and is typically polyethylene. The plastic is elastic, and it makes sure that the products are bound and tight as well. This is used with an automated system, sometimes called a stretch wrap dispenser. 

With this, stretch film is usually wrapped with pallet products in order to offer a steady and contained means to hold everything together while shipping and transporting these goods. They also can use stretch film for bundling firewood and other products too. 

Stretching or Strapping? 

So which film is right for you? Strapping or stretch film? Well, it all depends on your needs a s a consumer. Here, we’ll give you a few little things to consider when you’re choosing whether to use stretch film or strapping. Are you packing items that are heavy, including steel beams and other large construction materials? If the answer to that is yes, then you’ll want to use a strapping material for that, specifically steel. 

If you’re packing items that are supposed to be color-coded, or have transportation internationally, or a part of your inventory that needs to be dated, then you’ll want to use color stretch films for this, since they’re made specifically for that as well. 

If you’re planning to pallet different boxes of canned or bottled beverage items, then you can use polyester strapping for those needs. For products that are resistant to UV light, then you’ll want to utilize UVI stretch film since this is the best packaging for that. What about publications including newspapers and magazines? In that case, polypropylene is usually your best option for this. 

If you need a material that resists rusts, this exists too, and that’s the vapor corrosion inhibitor film that stretches and is probably the best item. If you’re transporting something heavy with no container, then you’re going to want to use strapping made of steel, especially on railroads since that’s required by law. 

Finally, there are appliances. Polypropylene strapping is usually the best option for this sort of thing, and usually will work pretty well to help keep everything together. There is a lot of options for how to properly secure materials, and you can, with this as well, create the best experience that you can with this, and truly ensure that everything is properly protected now, and also protected in the future for you as well. 

How to Lower your Logistics Costs

If you’re looking for ways to lower the logistics costs, especially from getting to points A and B, you definitely will want to adjust the logistics in order to shave the expenses down. Here are a few ways to help you do this easily, and effectively. 

Work with the Drivers 

A lot can be done about monitoring the drivers so they’re not speeding, wasting fuel, or making stops that aren’t needed. You should also though track the routes for deliveries and patterns of traffic to offer the best and most effectively safety experience. There are even apps you can use these days to help monitor traffic, so you should keep communication open so that the drivers are doing the safest, most effective routes possible. 

Keep it Running Smoothly 

If you haven’t been checking your cars, you should be doing so. You should bring in the trucks for proper checkups, and make sure that the tires are serviced as scheduled and inflated to the right levels. 

You also should check to ensure that the drivers know how to see when there are engine issues, and also the basic troubleshooting that they can do. It’s easy to think that your stuff will last forever, but that’s not the case. Keep the trucks in good condition, and not only will you have better production, but also longer-lasting services for everyone as a result. 

Monitor Goods Packaging 

If you notice that the goods you have are being sent at higher levels of loss and spoilage, you may need to monitor this, and properly use the bulk stretch wrap that’s out there packaging materials, airbags, and bracing and strapping to help with this. You should investigate whether or not you’re using them ineffectively or wasting materials for packaging. 

When this is done correctly, it offers more space to send out all of the products, while also offering better savings on different packaging materials. So make sure that if you’re not doing this, look at the packaging that you have and figure out if there’s anything specific you can do, whether it’s stretch wrap, a lot of tape, or other sorts of factors that help to minimize the chances of something breaking or spoiling too. 

Less and More 

The most practical way  to do this is to ship more items less often, and it’s actually one of the best ways for any business to lower the logistics in a lot of cases. You can message and ask customers about the habits that they have and ask them if they’d be more inclined to buy in bulk, and set up shipment that’s regular, rather than ordering stuff more haphazardly. 

You could even incentivize free shipping along with different perks if they decide to do this. Sure, it may get them the packages later, but it saves you a lot of money in shipping and of course in fuel costs. This shouldn’t be something that you change right away, but instead, budget and plan all of this in advance so you’re able to build a good idea of the project, offer better momentum on everything that you’re doing and help to offset the costs of this as well down the line. 

A little bit of planning goes a long way, and it can do you a lot of good I you’re able to properly and effectively ensure that you’re getting the packages to the customers, while also not leaving you in the hole either if you need to save money on goods, and also to ensure that you’re lowering logistics costs too.

The Benefits of Paper Tape

Paper tape is actually a new alternative to regular plastic tape that you might’ve used. For businesses that want to have an eco-friendly repute, this is probably the best thing to add along with the paper void fill and the corrugated cardboard boxes that you’ll be using. This does help get more people to support your green business.

Plastic tape does have some major drawbacks, and more and more companies are trying a paper tape option for shipment security, and also one that won’t put the planet at risk too. 

The issue with Regular Plastic Tape 

Tape used for packaging is so necessary to ensure parcel security that you want to make sur that you get from point A to point B without something being damaged or messed with. But what is the problem with using plastic tape. That’s something that boils down to it not being good for the environment, and it actually can cause lasting damage down the line too. 

A lot of plastic tape is not recyclable, and a lot of plants aren’t able to extract the plastic tape with traditional forms of recycling, so if you try to send packaging that’s recyclable but they can’t get rid of the tape, everything ends up majorly suffering as a result. This does make the process very inefficient, and you may realize that you’re spending a lot of energy just to sell items, energy that could be used to help save the environment. 

Why paper tape 

You may think that tape shouldn’t’ be paper, but it actually is a good alternative to the vinyl, or the polypropylene options for your tape as well, and it has a lot of advantages that definitely triumph over the plastic alternatives. 

First, t is pretty much just like regular tape, and it can be used like a regular piece of scotch tape. It also is very strong in terms of adhesive, and it will stick to the surfaces that you need to. You don’t have to worry about it possibly getting broken down, or the adhesion being compromised. 

It also is a much cheaper option too, since you are using less resources to make this. It also is resistant to tearing, so you don’t’ have to worry about it compromising the goods that are in there. 

It does have a natural feel too to it, so it means that when you touch it, you’ll notice how smooth and natural it is, and it can work really well with the aesthetics that are there with packaging cardboard. It also can eve be branded. With the realm of braded papering growing, it can definitely be a great way for you to really stand out as a business. 

Plus, let’s talk about the environmental benefits of this as well. Paper tape is actually something that eve amazon is using, so it actually is reducing a lot of paper waste on a whole level, so even if you don’t believe it, understand that even the biggest retailer in the world is using this type of tape, and it can really help your business. 

It’s good for sealing, and it’s something that won’t cause the box or carton to be compromised either, or when used with paper, both of these can be recycled, since well, they’re both made from the same things. As you can see, paper is a good way to really help be more ecofriendly, and for companies that do have an ecofriendly focus, this is a great way to ensure that you’re getting the results that you want. 

A Basic guide to corrugated boxes

Have you recently started a business and want to learn more about packaging? Well you’ve come to the right place. There are a variety of questions that come with these boxes, and you may wonder what the right type of this is for you to choose from, and which will benefit you. First, let’s go with the high level boxes. While you might think packaging is just carboard boxes, cardboard along with corrugated boxes are not one in the same. Cardboard is very heavy duty stock of paper, and it isn’t really used for shipping anything too strong. Cereal boxes are an example of this, and you can easily see that they’re kind of flimsy. 

Corrugated is the stronger type, and it has a much higher strength because there is a liner within this, and a medium. The liner is the flat part that’s on the outside and surfaces but also on the inner part, and the medium is what’s sandwiched between this, creating the arched kinds of shapes, or what they called “flutes” between these. They play a part of the strength that comes with the board too, and the sheets are then glued to make a corrugated board that’s converted to a box that can handle long and arduous journeys various bumps, and the like. The difference does matter because there are beginners who end up shipping stuff with the wrong kinds of boards, and it’s worth mentioning for a brief moment or two. 

The Basics 

Now, let’s talk about what kind of box that you should use. There are a ton of factors that go into how these are made, and they’re considered some of the most customizable types of media out there of you to use and allows you to create a box that’s perfect for whatever product you have. First, you’ve got the flute profiles, with the A, B, E, C, and F flutes being the most common. The flute size does talk about the wall thickness, with the A flute being the original type, and is the thickest, being 5 mm thick and is good for products that need a bit more cushioning or strength. B flutes are the next one and are good for canned goods and other products that don’t need a box for support and is about 3.2 mm thick and is a good choice for those die cut boxes. 

C flutes are basically 4 mm and is used for all purpose boxes. They are thicker then the ones in the B flute, but they still do a great job. Then there is the E and F, which are the two smallest, and are used mostly for packaging retail products, because they can be used for printing to offer a clear image. You also have different board faces too. Single face is where one liner sheet is put to one medium of corrugated product, sued to wrap around different products for cushioning. Single wall is where one corrugated is between two liner sheets, and these are used for retail displays out there and shipping boxes. 

Double wall is for those products that need a bit more strength, since it’s tow corrugated medium between three liner sheets. And finally we’ve got triple wall which is three corrugated medium sheets and between four liner sheets, and they’re the strongest, used for bins and industrial parts as well. You want to make sure that you choose all of the factors, and the grade as well, which offers the pressure and numbers for that, to give you the best box experience. 

Innovations that Could End plastic Packaging Waste

Plastic packaging is something that more and more companies are trying to figure out alternatives to. That’s because there are big problems with plastic packaging, and a lot of people don’t realize just how much it can affect things. But in this, we’ll go over some of the big solutions that you can use, in order to help with plastic packaging, offering real alternatives for this so that you’re able to really make sure that you’re getting enough from your packaging. 


Some alternatives to plastics include nanotechnology, which involves small little particles and other little additives that offer an alternative solution. These small particles end up breaking down into tinier little amounts compared to regular plastics, and of course, this allows for you to really improve your waste, offering more sustainability without the need for pollution.  

Nanotechnology is one that’s really good if you want something alternative to plastic, since in a lot of cases, the particles eventually become so small that usually they end up becoming nothing over time. Nanotechnology is still in the formative stages, but it could be a way that can be used over time. There is also the fact that nanotechnology can be used for breaking down and composting, since it is considered a valid alternative to the different types of particles that are out there. 

Magnetic Platelets 

Some options also include tiny platelets of magnetic structures, and this is used to help with breaking down a lot of the plastics that are out there. The magnets from this will break down the top layer and allow for the recycling of these materials. The one downside to some sustainable packaging is that there is rarely any use after they get recycled, also usually, this is becoming a new option for a lot of people. The multilayer structures of packaging are typically what causes the particles to not be broken down easily, but if you decide to use this type of new packaging trend, it could give you an option so you can recycle this again, long after it is over. 

Alternatives to Plastic 

For a lot of compostable packaging, the biggest thing to look for is something that’ll easily break down over time. Some alternatives are considered, including wheat and sugarcane, but probably best to use wood since wood, when you don’t coat it with anything that doesn’t make it biodegradable, it’s actually a really good alternative to traditional forms of packaging. 

Wood can also be broken down further with the use of cellulose, since this is a highly sustainable and great sort of means to help break down and reuse some of the products. Wood, although it’s been used a lot for packaging already, is considered a sustainable alternative to plastics as well, since it does go through a longer life cycle than normal plastics and it can be recycled, not polluting our oceans as much.

Cellulose packaging is becoming more and more exciting with time, and a lot of people definitely enjoy the difference this makes in their packaging. Being able to find alternatives to this is really important for some, simply because it means for them, the chance that they can as well try to ensure that they are definitely getting the most they can out of their packaging. Going green and getting better at alternative packaging is a good one, and for a lot of people it’s an option that allows for you to create a truly sustainable, truly green sort of packaging that you can most definitely use as well for a long period of time. 

How Digital Shipping Changes Packaging design

There are many online retailers that are spending upwards of $900 billion compared to previous years, and while many retailers have benefitted from online sales, the grocery and discount stores have seen a big shift in this. Online sales used to drive a small part of this, but the pandemic is changing all of this over time, and with new resources, people are starting to use this. Online grocery sales have grown, and while it’s still only a single-digit type of share, the growth is so much more than in the past, which means that they will retain the growth that the experienced at the peak though, even if it does die down. 

The rise of Visualization 

Brand managers are now considering how color plays a part in this, and the branding challenges and opportunities that come with this. Brand and packaging designers know that the color plays a big role not just on the shelf, but also online. In retail environments, you need to stand out on the wall of color, and if you have a package that creates a visual cue and a wall of color, the consumer will immediately turn to this, long before they even touch the package. Color becomes one of the key identifiers of the brand itself, and it’s a big part of the customer remembering and then relocating the product when they go to the store again.

As the digital rise starts to get bigger and bigger, the designer sand brads are now looking at what color can do when it comes to packaging and design. The purpose of this is to offer critical information about the product. When the physical environment isn’t present, the brands must then consider how they can engage with the packaging of a product in this new and improved contact, allowing for more brands to start to explore what digital tools they have available.

There are tons of digital visualization tools which do exist, and a designer will have to learn how to use this in different channels. The use of the tools does depend on the product itself, since consumer electronics along with apparel companies have begun to invest in a lot more that offers better, higher returns to the brand itself. There is a more accurate type of representation and the return rates of such too. 

As the tools start to become more and more widely available, we start to see them being adopted as consumer goods. Designers do as well need to look at the physical packaging and how it will work on-screen as well, such as using colors which are metallic, along with other special effects in the packaging, where the store lighting may not be appealing, or maybe it’s more appealing like this. It’s important to look at hos this will effect all part of the ecommerce realm, since digital screens that can’t render these effects in the same way does affect the appearance of such in the environments. In the world of color, the distinction and preciseness is important, especially when going between appearance and color. 

Color is one part of the main appearance on objects. There are other factors as well including the gloss and texture, so it can be hard to properly display this on screen, but it can be rendered through the right visualization and software, offering more chances for returns. Digital packaging is playing  a huge part in this, and for a lot of brands, learning to make stuff that looks good both on the shelves and off the shelve

Creative Ways to Make your Packaging Meet Sustainability Goals

More and more brands are experimenting with some of the different ways for sustainability to be better, and some of the formats that come with it. 

The perceptions of packaging and other factors are critical in making decisions. 

Companies are seeing this, but also are the customers and even some governmental entities, which are giving out guidelines to make sure that the packaging is more environmentally sound. 

Even amazon is making big design changes, so there are improvements happening all along their partner supply chains. 

No matter the reason behind it though, it’s good for you to do. 

It does keep you at the front of different trends, can get interest sparked, and it also is good for launching products that really live up to the hype, since customers will remember this too. 

Brands have been looking for new ways to offer packaging sustainability, and here are some of the more creative ways that they’ve been able to truly make this packaging stand out. 

Reusable Packaging 

A lot of brands are using different reusable packaging. 

Procter and Gamble are launching reusable shampoo bottles, where customers can refill this, and it uses a lot less plastic, and it can be recycled too. 

There are other companies that are looking to also eliminate waste, where customers will put a refundable deposit on the reusable packaging, and when empty, return it so that it can be cleaned up and used again, so that you can have truly sustainable packaging. 

Try New Packaging Materials 

There are a lot of companies trying to use paper, especially paper bottles that are resistant to water, have interlocking edges, and can be shipped for better efficiency all along the supply chain. 

There are also alternatives to multipack rings, since a lot of customers don’t really cut them up before they discard them, which can cause animals to get stuck on them. That’s why some companies are literally gluing the cans together or using paperboard for this. 

There are also plant-based wrappers, compostable bags and different packaging, and also soy-based packaging inks since this offers better sustainability, and it’s better for the planet. 

Remove the Unnece3ssary 

If you think about it, one of the best and easiest ways to become sustainable is to remove anything extra. So strings, wrappers that are individual, staples, and other such things are definitely making the changes that are necessary too. 

Minimizing the packaging is really good, since it does offer a bigger influence to how the customers purchase stuff, and the choices that they make. 

New Recyclability 

Yes, there are new end of life packaging options that a lot of companies are working to take advantage of. 

Brands that have implemented a lot of those including tubes which are recyclable, returnable packaging, and other types of recycling options are offering better solutions, and you can put together new options. 

You also start to notice more and more pod-based alternatives rather than just trying to get it all into one container, where they just toss it out. 

There are people who are using more pod-based materials because it does offer an alternative to plastic. 

When it comes to making sure that your products are sustainable and good for the environment, you may be stumped on what exactly you can do. Luckily, there are new ways to do this, and we hope the creative ways that you’ve learned here have become something that you can use and enjoy, and something which offers new packaging for you to use, in order to truly grow your business too.

The most Important Moving supplies needed

If you’re planning to move, there are some supplies that you absolutely need. Without them, you’re going to have a rough move, and it won’t be fun for anyone. There are some things that you need minimally, and here, we’ll go over some of the more important, but overlooked, types of items for moving. 

Bubble Wrap 

This is easy, and a good way to protect packaging. It also is serrated in a lot of cases so that you can just tear and use. This is wonderful for breakables, so definitely use this. Here are a few tips for using bubble wrap in your packaging: 

  • Always make sure to wrap the item with the bubbles facing the product to properly protect. 
  • You can use this on dishes and glasses, but make sure that the bubble wrap is small 
  • Stack dishes with bubble wrap on the edge, not flat 
  • Use bubbles that are bigger for bigger items including larger electronics, vases, and other sculptures. 

Packing Paper

Packing paper is another good insert for virtually anything. This can be newspaper printing, or even just white or brown paper that’s good for packing other fragile items. There are a few tips to properly use this one, and they are below: 

  • Make sure to get them ink-free for dishes that are light, or white-colored 
  • You can use it as a filler with packing boxes to prevent them from shipping 
  • It’s so clean that you don’t need to wash the dishes when you unpack them if you don’t want to 
  • It’s cheaper than bubble wrap, so unless you need it, or are buying in bulk, it’s better to just use this 
  • You can wrap and cushion practically every single item that you’re going to send out when you’re moving to a new locale. 

Cardboard Boxes 

Cardboard boxes are some of the most common means to move all of the items that you’re moving, in order to make a truly smooth and exciting experience for moving. They are available in a variety of different sizes and shapes and are really good for different items. Some of the tips to using these include the following: 

  • Use these for books, tools, silverware, and other canned goods, but keep them in smaller boxes 
  • Use the larger ones for pillows, lamp shades, and bedding, bulkier items 
  • Medium boxes are good for toys, small electronics and appliances, and also smaller lampshades 
  • You will want to make sure to use a combination of these boxes so that they don’t get too heavy. 
  • Never overpack these since if you’re moving it, you’re going to be the one to move this, so be smart with it 
  • Pack the heavier items near the bottom part, and then the light ones near the top part 
  • Never leave empty spaces in this, since this could cause damage to the items. You can pack these with linens and towels until everything is properly stabilized, in order to help with stacking and to make them better for moving 

Moving Blankets 

Finally, there are moving blankets. If you’re working with professionals, you will not need to buy them, but if you want to use them, you can buy them, or just use comforters, blankets, and beach towels. These are furniture pads, and they definitely are good for a lot of people. You sometimes want to buy since you don’t know how dirty they are, but they prevent the furniture from being scratched and also can be shrink-wrapped to furniture. 

The Different Kinds of Food Packaging 

Maybe you’re a chef who wants to bring recipes to the retail world and supermarkets, or maybe you want new ways to package said products. 

You also may own food trucks and want new containers. There are so many possibilities, and it’s important to definitely explore it. 

Here, we’ll go over each of the different food packaging types, and why they’re good for one type of retailer or another. 

Flexible Pouch containers 

Flexible pouches are one of the fastest growing, and a lot of the global market is changing to this. 

Why is it good? 

Well first and foremost, they leave a much tinier carbon footprint, and take up les space. 

They also stand up, which companies like. They also are much cheaper too. 

Consumers also like these because they’re resistant to shatter, have nice features, and you can even add valves that help with sealing the product. 

You see this in a lot of coffees, used to seal the product and prevent spoilage. 

They also have design perks too, since they can be 3D printed on. 

Containers and Jars 

Containers and jars are good materials for packaging, and glass has been very popular. 

They have that feeling of luxury compared to different materials, and they are transparent, which lets people see inside, so they can view the product before purchasing. 

They’re also recyclable too, and they offer a big carbon footprint and are sustainable packaging too in most cases. 

The one downside is that they are more expensive when it comes to shipping, and if dropped, it does affect cleanup. 


Clamshell packaging is pretty much similar to carded packaging, and are used mostly to package consumer goods, and are oftentimes used either to replace or along with blister packs too. 

They’re made from plastic, paper, plant materials, or even Styrofoam. 

They offer two shells, where they’re connected, in order to clasp it. 

They’re used to package everything, and are used in restaurants as well, oftentimes known as takeout boxes too, and are a great product for retailers. 

The downside to this, is that it’s not very recyclable.  There is some made form PET materials, and are recyclable, but if they’re compostable, they won’t be. 


Another product that’s survived its time, cans have been around since 1920 and are even sometimes considered collector’s items. 

They’re made with aluminum, and they are totally recyclable, affordable, and have a high resistance to shatter. 

They’re usually used for packaging meats, vegetables, different sauces, and even canned soups and other dishes. 

There are also cans used in beverage packaging, such as water, energy drinks, and sodas too. 

They’re totally recyclable, and usually offer a better alternative to creating less of a carbon footprint compared to plastic, but flexible packaging is definitely lower. 

The cans also need to be cleaned out before sent to recycle, and if it’s not good enough, they’ll be sent towards the landfill as well. 

Shrink Wrap 

Shrink wrap, or shrink film, is pretty much film that’s put over foods, and is then sealed, and then they move through a machine that will help to fully seal the product itself. 

This also provides a really nice sheen that’s glossy on the products in a way that catches the eye of the consumer who sees it on a shelf. 

This is used not just for food, but also electronics, consumer goods, even CDs and books as well. 

And these are but a few of the packaging types that you can use, and they are becoming more popular as well as time goes on.